Welcome to the board.
Your tractor is a December 1954 Fordson Major. Timing should be 29 degrees and as you say, was got by lining up a pointer with a notch on the front pulley. With the notch in position and the engine on No 1, the coupling clamp bolt should be below the drive shaft.
The position of the bolt is important as this indicates you are on No 1 cylinder. You can time these engines 180 degrees out very easily and this will give all the symptoms you describe.
If you are missing a pointer, the notch should line up with the lower dynamo bracket retaining bolt. Even if it is not exact she will start and run.
Lining the pump up with the inlet valve is not the correct position. Use your pointer and set the pump in line and she should go providing the clamp bolt is in the position in the picture.
Let us know how you get on.